# How To Use R For Sports Stats, Part 3: Projections

In this series, we’ve walked through how exactly you can use R for statistical analysis, from the absolute basics of R coding (in part 1) to visualizing data and correlation tests (in part 2).

Since you’re reading this on TechGraphs, though, you might be interested in statistical projections, so that’s how we’ll wrap this up. If you’re just joining us, feel free to follow along, though looking through parts 1 and 2 first might help everything make more sense.

In this post, we’ll use R to create and test a few different projection systems, focusing on a bare-bones Marcel and a multiple linear regression model for predicting home runs. I’ve said a couple times before that we’re just scratching the surface of what you can do — but this is *especially* true in this case, since people write graduate theses on the sort of stuff we’re exploring here. At the end, though, I’ll point you to some places where you can learn more about both baseball projections and R programming.

### Baseline

Let’s get everything set up. We’ll have to start by abandoning –well, modifying– that test data set that served us so well in Parts 1/2; we’ll add another two years of data (2011-14), trim out some unnecessary stats, and add a few which might prove useful later on. It’s probably easiest just to download this file.

Then we’ll load it:

fouryr = read.csv("FG1114.csv")

convert some of the percentage stats to decimal numbers:

fouryr$FB. = as.numeric(sub("%","",fouryr$FB.))/100fouryr$K. = as.numeric(sub("%","",fouryr$K.))/100fouryr$Hard. = as.numeric(sub("%","",fouryr$Hard.))/100fouryr$Pull. = as.numeric(sub("%","",fouryr$Pull.))/100fouryr$Cent. = as.numeric(sub("%","",fouryr$Cent.))/100fouryr$Oppo. = as.numeric(sub("%","",fouryr$Oppo.))/100

and create subsets for each individual year.

yr11 = subset(fouryr, Season == "2011")colnames(yr11) = c("2011", "Name", "Team11", "G11", "PA11", "HR11", "R11", "RBI11", "SB11", "BB11", "K11", "ISO11", "BABIP11", "AVG11", "OBP11", "SLG11", "WAR11", "FB11", "Hard11", "Pull11", "Cent11", "Oppo11", "playerid11")yr12 = subset(fouryr, Season == "2012")colnames(yr12) = c("2012", "Name", "Team12", "G12", "PA12", "HR12", "R12", "RBI12", "SB12", "BB12", "K12", "ISO12", "BABIP12", "AVG12", "OBP12", "SLG12", "WAR12", "FB12", "Hard12", "Pull12", "Cent12", "Oppo12", "playerid12")yr13 = subset(fouryr, Season == "2013")colnames(yr13) = c("2013", "Name", "Team13", "G13", "PA13", "HR13", "R13", "RBI13", "SB13", "BB13", "K13", "ISO13", "BABIP13", "AVG13", "OBP13", "SLG13", "WAR13", "FB13", "Hard13", "Pull13", "Cent13", "Oppo13", "playerid13")yr14 = subset(fouryr, Season == "2014")colnames(yr14) = c("2014", "Name", "Team14", "G14", "PA14", "HR14", "R14", "RBI14", "SB14", "BB14", "K14", "ISO14", "BABIP14", "AVG14", "OBP14", "SLG14", "WAR14", "FB14", "Hard14", "Pull14", "Cent14", "Oppo14", "playerid14")

(We’re renaming the columns for each subset because the **merge()** function has some problems if you try to merge too many sets with the same names. If you want to explore the less hacked-together way of reassembling data frames in R, take a look at the dplyr package.)

Anyway, we’ll merge these all back into one set:

set = merge(yr11, yr12, by = "Name")set = merge(set, yr13, by = "Name")set = merge(set, yr14, by = "Name")

Still with me? Good. Thanks for your patience. Let’s start testing projections.

Specifically, we’re going to see how well we can use the 2011-2013 data to predict the 2014 data. For simplicity’s sake, we’ll focus mostly on a single stat: the home run. It’s nice to test with–it’s a 5×5 stat, it has a decent amount of variation, it gives us experience with testing counting stats while being more player-controlled than R/RBI… and, come on, we all dig the long ball.

Now when you’re testing your model, it’s nice to have a baseline–a sense of the absolute worst that a reasonable model could do. For our baseline, we’ll use previous-year stats: we’ll project that a player’s 2013 HR count will be exactly what they hit in 2014.

To test how well this works, we’ll follow this THT post and use the mean absolute error–the average number of HRs that the model is off by per player. So if a system projects two players to each hit 10 homers, but one hits zero and the other hits 20, the MAE would be 10.

(If you end up doing more projection work yourself, you may want to try a more fine-tuned metric like r² or RMSE, but I like MAE for a basic overview because the value is directly measurable to the stat you’re examining.)

To find the mean absolute error, take the absolute value of the difference between the projected and actual stats, sum it up for every player, then divide by the number of players you’re projecting:

sum(abs(set$HR13 - set$HR14))/length(set$HR14)> [1] 6.423729

So the worst projection system possible should be able to beat an average error of about six and a half homers per player.

### Marcel, Marcel

Now let’s try a slightly-less-than-absolute-worst model.

Marcel is the gold standard of bare-bones baseball projections. At its core, Marcel predicts a player’s stats using the last 3 years of MLB data. The previous year (Year X) gets a weight of 5, the year before (X-1) gets a weight of 4, and X-2 gets a weight of 3. As originally created, Marcel also includes an adjustment for regression to the mean and an age factor, but we’ll set aside such fancies for this demonstration.

To find Marcel’s prediction, we’ll create a new column in our dataset weighing the last 3 years of HRs. Since our weights are 5 + 4 + 3 = 12, we’ll take 5/12 from the 2013 data, 4/12 from the 2012 data, and 3/12 from the 2011 data. Then we’ll round it to the nearest integer.

set$marHR = (set$HR13 * 5/12) + (set$HR12 * 4/12) + (set$HR11 * 3/12)set$marHR = round(set$marHR,0)

Voila! Your first (real) projections. How do they perform?

sum(abs(set$marHR - set$HR14))/length(set$HR14)> [1] 5.995763

Better by nearly half a home run. Not bad for two minutes’ work. 6 HR per player still seems like a lot, though, so let’s take a closer look at the discrepancies. We’ll create another column with the (absolute) difference between each player’s projected 2014 HRs and actual 2014 HRs, then plot a histogram displaying these differences.

set$mardiff = abs(set$marHR-set$HR14)hist(set$mardiff, breaks=30, col="red")

Not as bad as you might have thought. Many players are only off by a few home runs, some off by 10+, and a few fun outliers hanging out at 20+. Who might those be?

set = set[order(-set$mardiff),]head(set[c(1,72,90,91)], n=10)

(In that last line, we’re calling specific column names so we don’t have to search through 100 columns for the data we want when we display this. You can find the appropriate numbers using **colnames(set)**.)

A list headlined by a season-ending injury and two players released by their teams in July; fairly tough to predict in advance, IMO.

While we’re here, let’s go ahead and create Marcel projections for the other 5×5 batting stats:

set$marAVG = (set$AVG13 * 5/12) + (set$AVG12 * 4/12) + (set$AVG11 * 3/12)set$marAVG = round(set$marAVG,3)set$marR = (set$R13 * 5/12) + (set$R12 * 4/12) + (set$R11 * 3/12)set$marR = round(set$marR,0)set$marRBI = (set$RBI13 * 5/12) + (set$RBI12 * 4/12) + (set$RBI11 * 3/12)set$marRBI = round(set$marRBI,0)set$marSB = (set$SB13 * 5/12) + (set$SB12 * 4/12) + (set$SB11 * 3/12)set$marSB = round(set$marSB,0)

And, for good measure, save it all in an external file. We’ll create a new data frame from the data we just created, rename the columns to look nicer, and write the file itself.

marcel = data.frame(set$Name, set$marHR, set$marR, set$marRBI, set$marSB, set$marAVG)colnames(marcel) = c("Name", "HR", "R", "RBI", "SB", "AVG")write.csv(marcel, "marcel.csv")

Before we move on, I want to quickly cover one more R skill: creating your own functions. We’re going to be using that absolute mean error command a couple more times, so let’s create a function to make writing it a bit easier.

modtest = function(stat){ame = sum(abs(stat - set$HR14))/length(set$HR14)return(ame)}

The ‘stat’ inside **function(stat)** is the argument you’ll be including in the function (here, the column of projected data we’re testing); the ‘stat’ shows up inside the bracketed text where your projected data did when we originally used this command. The **return()** is what your function outputs to you. Let’s make sure it works by double-checking our Marcel HR projection:

modtest(set$marHR)> [1] 5.995763

Now we can just use **modtest()** to find the absolute mean error. Functions can be as long or as short as you’d like, and are incredibly helpful if you’re using a certain set of commands repeatedly or doing any sort of advanced programming.

### Hold The Line

With Marcel, we used three factors–HR counts from 2013, 2012, and 2011–with simple weights of 5, 4, and 3. For our last projection model, let’s take this same idea, but fine-tune the weights and look at some other stats which might help us project home runs. This, basically, is multiple linear regression. I’m going to handwave over a lot of the theory behind regressions, but Bradley’s how-to from last week does a fantastic job of going through the details.

Remember back in part 2, when we were looking at correlation tests in r² and we mentioned how we were basically modeling a *y = mx + b* equation? That’s basically what we did with Marcel just now, where ‘y’ was our projected HR count and we had three different mx values, one each for the 2013, 2012 and 2011 HR counts. (In this example, ‘b’, the intercept, is 0.)

So we can then use the same **lm()** function we did last time to model the different factors that can predict home run counts. We’ll give R the data and the factors we want it to use, and it’ll tell us how to best combine them to most accurately model the data. We can’t model the 2014 data directly in this example–since we’re testing our model against it, it’d be cheating to use it ‘in advance’–but we can model the 2013 HR data, then use that model to predict 2014 HR counts.

This is where things start to get more subjective, but let’s start by creating a model using the last two years (2013/2012) of HR data, plus the last year (2012) of ISO, Hard%, and Pull%. In the **lm()** function, the data we’re attempting to model will be on the left, separated by a ‘~’; the factors we’re including will be on the right, separated by plus signs.

hrmodel = lm(set$HR13 ~ set$HR12 + set$HR11 + set$Hard12 + set$Pull12 + set$ISO12)summary(hrmodel)

There’s a lot of stuff to unpack here, but the first things to check out are those “*Pr(>|t|)*” values in the right corner. Very simply, a p-value less than .05 there means that that factor is significantly improving your model. (The r² for this model, btw, is .4611, so this is accounting for roughly 46% of the 2013 HR variance.) So basically, ISO and Pull% don’t seem to add much value to this model, but Hard% does.

It’s generally a good practice to remove any factors that don’t have a significant effect and re-run your model, so let’s do that:

hrmodel = lm(set$HR13 ~ set$HR12 + set$HR11 + set$Hard12)summary(hrmodel)

And there’s your multiple linear regression model. The format for the actual projection formula is basically the same as what we did for Marcel, except your weights will take the coefficient estimates and you’ll include the intercept listed above them. Remember that “HR12”, “HR11”, etc., are standing in for “last year’s HR total”, “the year before that’s HR total”, etc., so make sure to increment the stats by a year to project for 2014.

set$betHR = (-5.3 + (set$HR13 * .32) + (set$HR12 * .13) + (set$Hard13 * 40))set$betHR = round(set$betHR,0)

Survey says…?

modtest(set$betHR)> [1] 5.95339

…oh. Yay. So that’s an improvement of, uh…

modtest(set$marHR) - modtest(set$betHR)> [1] 0.04237288

1/20th of a home run per player. Isn’t this fun? Some reasons why we might not have seen the improvement we expected:

- We probably
*overfit*the data. Since we ran the model on 2013 data, it probably did really well on 2013 data, but not as great on 2014. If we check the model on the 2013 data:

set$fakeHR = (-5.3 + (set$HR12 * .33) + (set$HR11 * .13) + (set$Hard12 * 40))set$fakeHR = round(set$fakeHR,0)sum(abs(set$fakeHR - set$HR13))/length(set$HR13) > [1] 4.877119

It runs pretty well.

- We didn’t include useful factors we could have. We just tested a few obvious ones; maybe looking at Cent% or Oppo% would be more helpful than Pull%? (They aren’t, just so you know.) More abstract factors like age, ballpark, etc., would obviously help–but including these would also require a stronger model.

- Finally, projections are
*hard*. Even if you have an incredibly customized set of projections, you’re going to miss some stuff. Take a system like Steamer, one of the most accurate freely-available projection tools around. How did their 2014 preseason projections stack up?

steamer = read.csv("steamer.csv")steamcomp = merge(yr14, steamer, by = "playerid14")steamcomp$HR = as.numeric(paste(steamcomp$HR))steamcomp$HR = round(steamcomp$HR, 0)steamcomp$HR[is.na(steamcomp$HR)] = 0sum(abs(steamcomp$HR - steamcomp$HR14))/length(steamcomp$HR14)> [1] 4.892157

That said, the lesson you should *not* take away from this is “oh, our homemade model is only 1 HR/player worse than Steamer!” Our data set is looking at players for whom we have several seasons’ worth of data — the easiest players to project. If we had to create a full-blown projection system including players recovering from injury, rookies, etc., we’d look even worse.

If anything, this hopefully shows how much work the Silvers, Szymborskis, and Crosses of the world have put in to making projections better for us all. Here’s the script with everything we covered.

### This Is Where I Leave You

Well, that about wraps it up. There’s plenty, plenty more to learn, of course, but at this point you’ll do well to just experiment a little, do some Googling, and see where you want to go from here.

If you want to learn more about R coding, say, or predictive modeling, I’d definitely recommend picking up a book or trying an online class through somewhere like MIT OpenCourseWare or Coursera. (By the end of which, most likely, you’ll be way beyond anything I could teach you.) If there’s anything particular about R you’d still like to see covered, though, let me know and I’ll see if I can do a writeup in the future.

Thanks to everyone who’s joined us for this series — the kudos I’ve read here and elsewhere have been overwhelming — and thanks again to Jim Hohmann for being my perpetual beta tester/guinea pig. Have fun!

Brice lives in the Washington, DC area, where he does communications for linguistics and space exploration organizations. Brice has previously written for Ars Technica, Discovery News and the Winston-Salem Journal. He's on Twitter at @KilroyWasHere.

Thanks again, really great stuff.

I absolutely loved these articles but I have no idea how I’m going to use this. Thanks!

Thanks! One potential use could be to build your own basic projections really early in the offseason (theoretically, as soon as the season’s over).

To be honest, anything that you or I create probably won’t match the accuracy of the leading systems, but since their projections often don’t come out until late winter/early spring, having *something* to work off of before that could be helpful for keeper decisions, offseason trades, etc.

I’m pretty new to R. Could you explain the “less hacked” way of reassembling data frames using the dplyr package?

Brice,

This is great. That is all.

Thanks for putting this together Brice.

I’m getting some wonky results on linear model fitting.

Coefficients:

Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)

(Intercept) -5.25157 2.51590 -2.087 0.0379 *

set$HR12 0.32417 0.06147 5.274 0.000000306 ***

set$HR11 0.12709 0.05318 2.390 0.0177 *

set$Hard12 4093.34366 1009.03140 4.057 0.000068012 ***

However, when I used these values (including 4093) in the projection model the results were better (testing against the set$HR13 resulted in MAE = 3.483). Any idea where I messed up? Obviously thinking that something is off with the Hard12 column…seeing as the only change was the reformatting, perhaps it shouldn’t have been divided by 100?

Please ignore. Figured it out.